In addition to potential issues with toxicity, production of unwanted secondary metabolites might confound production efforts of heterologous metabolites or new-to-nature compounds, as these molecules will be produced under similar conditions, and will likely be co-extracted during proof-of-concept of scale-up stages. However, with genome editing technology see below , it should be possible to tackle this problem by removing mycotoxin clusters [ 2 ]. A more general problem that became apparent from the A. Subsequent release of additional A. This is further complicated by functional redundancy, where deletion of a single gene has no measurable impact.
This problem has been partially obviated by continued molecular tool development in A.
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However, these strategies are unlikely to have the necessary throughput for functional characterization of several thousand genes. Indeed, inferring function from unicellular yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae , or other Aspergilli, such as A.
Aspergillus niger Research Papers - arisagdenve.gq
Recent applications of genome editing in filamentous fungi arguably hold the greatest promise for rapid gene functional characterization in A. Early DNA sequencing of bacterial genome revealed short repetitive sequences with unknown functions in E. In a seminal paper, it was shown that the system is programmable to cut any DNA sequence with high specificity [ 87 ], which generated a watershed momentum, given the ability of the endonuclease to retain its activity in many different organisms fungi, insects, mice, humans, plants etc.
The use of the genome editing technology in filamentous fungi has been recently reviewed [ 88 ].
While delivery of DNA encoding the components of the system endonuclease, guide RNA , or in vitro generated components themselves, into the fungal cell remains a challenge due to the fungal cell wall, and still requires common protocols as protoplasting, different strategies have been developed to increase efficiency in species such as A. One recent example illustrates the reach of the technology when applied to A. Kuivanen et al. Derived from d -galacturonic acid, the main component of the natural polymer pectin, galactaric acid is used as precursor for Nylon and in skin-care cosmetics [ 90 ].
Although A. The authors deleted seven genes involved in catabolism of d -galacturonic acid and galactaric acid in A. With such an engineered A.
The Open Biotechnology Journal
In an effort to map the landscape of international research groups currently working on A. We focused on this relative short time span to ensure mapping of researchers actively working on A. Based on previously reported information [ 91 , 92 , 93 ] we also compiled a list of multinational companies using A. Our mapping of both basic and applied research on A. The A. Network of the community of researchers investigating A. Size of circles roughly indicates number of published articles.
Connections indicate collaborations as indicated by at least one co-authorship. The position of the circles is arbitrary. This historical overview has covered some of the scientific trends and key discoveries that have occurred in the field of A. Clearly, there are a diverse range of other industrially relevant fungi and bacteria that have also undergone revolutionary advances since their first use by early industrial microbiologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. What does the future of industrial biotechnology hold for A.
This speculation indicated a hypothesized future focus on synthetic biology including generation of mycotoxin-free isolates , network analysis including genomics, gene expression and metabolomics , increased applications of co-cultivation technology and CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, and a continued focus on secondary metabolism, fermentation, citric acid production, enzymes, and glucoamylase research Fig.
The word cloud was generated online as described in Fig. What more has to come to fully understand and optimally exploit A. In our opinion, the following outstanding questions need to be addressed by the community in the near future:. How can community efforts maintain and increase the quality and usability from data deposition to analysis of fungal datasets in light of the increasing amount of omics and literature data generated?
Data availability statement
How can we verify the accuracy of predictive algorithms to assign function to hypothetical genes? What is the best and easiest way to integrate genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome data for powerful comparative omics approaches? How can we generate accurate genome-wide metabolic networks that also are integrated with other omics data? How can miniaturised cultivation in microtiter plate or smaller size be adapted for A. How can cell heterogeneity be investigated, so that variations in metabolism and gene-expression are not averaged over a whole colony or mycelium, and which new tools will foster these single-cell approaches?
How can stable and reproducible growth of A. How can a minimal A. Which secondary metabolite clusters should be included or omitted? Which synthetic biology tools to regulate different metabolic pathways in parallel can be developed or implemented, e. Can A. Given the tremendous advances in the knowledge of A. Indeed, we predict that A. At this pace, we are excited to witness what the future will bring. Overview of citric acid production from Aspergillus niger.
Front Life Sci. Current challenges of research on filamentous fungi in relation to human welfare and a sustainable bio-economy: a white paper. Fungal Biol Biotechnol. Currie JN.
The Growth of Aspergillus Niger on a Wood Based Material with 4 Types of Wall Finishing
The citric acid fermentation of Aspergillus niger. J Biol Chem. Penicillin Production through Deep-tank Fermentation. Accessed 9 Apr Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Nucleic Acids Res. The influence of zinc, iron, copper, and manganese on the production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger. Evidence for the essential nature of copper and manganese.
J Bacteriol. Influence of temperature on the trace element requirements for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Appl Microbiol. Shu P, Johnson MJ. Effect of the composition of the sporulation medium on citric acid production by Aspergillus niger in submerged culture. Production of citric acid by mutants of Aspergillus niger.
Abstracting and Indexing
Nutritional requirements of an Aspergillus niger mutant for citric acid production. Biochem J. Cain RB. The identity of shikimate dehydrogenase and quinate dehydrogenase in Aspergillus niger. Purification, properties, and molecular features of glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger. J Biochem. Affinity chromatography of amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger. Biochim Biophys Acta Protein Struct. Mill PJ. The pectic enzymes of Aspergillus niger.
A mercury-activated exopolygalacturonase. Two forms of the glucoamylase of Aspergillus niger. Arch Biochem Biophys. Glycoenzymes: structure and properties of the two forms of glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydr Res. Late onset asthma due to inhalation of Aspergillus niger. Clin Exp Allergy. New and improved techniques for the study of pathogenic fungi.